Hepatitis is a general term for inflammation of the liver . Inflammation of the liver can be caused by various things, it can be due to the habit of consuming alcohol, the use of certain drugs, autoimmune, or most often a viral infection.
Inflammation of the liver (Hepatitis) caused by viral infection has several types:
- Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is caused by infection of the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is transmitted through food or drink that is not cooked and contaminated or contaminated with feces of hepatitis A patients that contain the hepatitis A virus. In addition, Hepatitis A can also be transmitted through oral sex. Hepatitis A is self-limiting or can be completely cured and does not become chronic. A person who has been infected with Hepatitis A will have lifelong immunity. Hepatitis A can be prevented by applying hand washing with soap and running water and maintaining the food and drinks consumed daily. For those who have not been infected with Hepatitis A, immunity can be formed through Hepatitis A immunization. Currently there is no specific treatment for Hepatitis A. Treatment only treats symptoms and maintains nutritional balance. Symptoms that require hospitalization are severe symptoms, for example when a person does not want to eat, nausea, vomiting continues to reduce the person’s nutritional and fluid intake.
- Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B is spread when the blood, semen, or other body fluids of a person infected with the virus enter the body of an uninfected person. This can happen through unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or other injecting equipment; or from mother to baby at birth. Prevention of HBV is to avoid risky activities by using safety precautions when engaging in sexual activities, not sharing needles and other injecting equipment. Especially for pregnant women, termination of transmission from mother to child can be done by detecting Hepatitis B in pregnant women and giving HBV immunization and Hepatitis B immunoglobulin in the first 24 hours after the baby is born. Henceforth, the Hepatitis B schedule follows the schedule determined by the Government.
- Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The hepatitis C virus is a blood-borne virus. The virus is most commonly transmitted through reuse or unsterilized medical equipment, especially syringes and syringes in health care facilities; transfusion of unfiltered blood and blood products; and injecting drug use through sharing injecting equipment. HCV can be passed from an infected mother to her baby and through sexual practices that result in exposure to blood. Hepatitis C is not spread through breast milk, food, water or casual contact such as hugging, kissing and sharing food or drink with an infected person. Currently there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C so the main prevention is to avoid activities that risk transmitting Hepatitis C. Currently there is a Hepatitis C drug called Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) which is taken orally (taken by mouth). The advantages of DAA compared to previous generation drugs (a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin) are that DAA drugs have a higher cure rate (almost 100%), fewer side effects, and shorter treatment time.
- Hepatitis D
Hepatitis D is caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Hepatitis D is a rare type of hepatitis, but it can be serious. Hepatitis D virus cannot reproduce in the human body without hepatitis B. Hepatitis D is transmitted through blood and other body fluids. There is currently no vaccine to prevent hepatitis D. However, hepatitis B prevention with the hepatitis B vaccine also protects against future hepatitis D infection.
- Hepatitis E
Hepatitis E is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is easily transmitted in an environment that has poor sanitation. One of them is through contamination of water sources. Hepatitis E transmission can also occur through blood transfusions, pregnant women to fetuses, and animals infected with the HEV virus. There is currently no vaccine for Hepatitis E. Hepatitis E infection usually clears up on its own in 2-6 weeks. Sometimes a serious illness known as fulminant hepatitis (acute liver failure) can develop as a result of Hepatitis E infection. This acute liver failure can be fatal. From a public health perspective, prevention of hepatitis E infection can be done by maintaining quality standards for public water supplies; and establish proper disposal systems for human waste.
- Hepatitis G
Hepatitis G is caused by infection with the Hepatitis G virus (HBV). HGV also known as GBV-C is transmitted through the same ways as HIV and HCV such as blood transfusion from an infected person, use of unsterilized needles and syringes, unprotected sexual activity, and mother-to-child transmission. There is little evidence that HGV can cause serious liver disease at any age. HGV does not have specific symptoms like people who are infected with other Hepatitis viruses.
In the early stages, people with hepatitis usually do not feel any symptoms until the disease eventually causes damage and impaired liver function.
Here are some of the common symptoms that appear in people with hepatitis:
- Pale stools
- Dark urine
from various sources